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Old Nov 29th, 2013, 06:20 PM   #1
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Forgotten Slaves

http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-iri...e-slaves/31076

They came as slaves; vast human cargo transported on tall British ships bound for the Americas. They were shipped by the hundreds of thousands and included men, women, and even the youngest of children.

Whenever they rebelled or even disobeyed an order, they were punished in the harshest ways. Slave owners would hang their human property by their hands and set their hands or feet on fire as one form of punishment. They were burned alive and had their heads placed on pikes in the marketplace as a warning to other captives.

We don’t really need to go through all of the gory details, do we? We know all too well the atrocities of the African slave trade.

But, are we talking about African slavery? King James II and Charles I also led a continued effort to enslave the Irish. Britain’s famed Oliver Cromwell furthered this practice of dehumanizing one’s next door neighbor.

The Irish slave trade began when James II sold 30,000 Irish prisoners as slaves to the New World. His Proclamation of 1625 required Irish political prisoners be sent overseas and sold to English settlers in the West Indies. By the mid 1600s, the Irish were the main slaves sold to Antigua and Montserrat. At that time, 70% of the total population of Montserrat were Irish slaves.

Ireland quickly became the biggest source of human livestock for English merchants. The majority of the early slaves to the New World were actually white.

From 1641 to 1652, over 500,000 Irish were killed by the English and another 300,000 were sold as slaves. Ireland’s population fell from about 1,500,000 to 600,000 in one single decade. Families were ripped apart as the British did not allow Irish dads to take their wives and children with them across the Atlantic. This led to a helpless population of homeless women and children. Britain’s solution was to auction them off as well.

During the 1650s, over 100,000 Irish children between the ages of 10 and 14 were taken from their parents and sold as slaves in the West Indies, Virginia and New England. In this decade, 52,000 Irish (mostly women and children) were sold to Barbados and Virginia. Another 30,000 Irish men and women were also transported and sold to the highest bidder. In 1656, Cromwell ordered that 2000 Irish children be taken to Jamaica and sold as slaves to English settlers.

Many people today will avoid calling the Irish slaves what they truly were: Slaves. They’ll come up with terms like “Indentured Servants” to describe what occurred to the Irish. However, in most cases from the 17th and 18th centuries, Irish slaves were nothing more than human cattle.

As an example, the African slave trade was just beginning during this same period. It is well recorded that African slaves, not tainted with the stain of the hated Catholic theology and more expensive to purchase, were often treated far better than their Irish counterparts.

African slaves were very expensive during the late 1600s (50 Sterling). Irish slaves came cheap (no more than 5 Sterling). If a planter whipped or branded or beat an Irish slave to death, it was never a crime. A death was a monetary setback, but far cheaper than killing a more expensive African. The English masters quickly began breeding the Irish women for both their own personal pleasure and for greater profit. Children of slaves were themselves slaves, which increased the size of the master’s free workforce. Even if an Irish woman somehow obtained her freedom, her kids would remain slaves of her master. Thus, Irish moms, even with this new found emancipation, would seldom abandon their kids and would remain in servitude.

In time, the English thought of a better way to use these women (in many cases, girls as young as 12) to increase their market share: The settlers began to breed Irish women and girls with African men to produce slaves with a distinct complexion. These new “mulatto” slaves brought a higher price than Irish livestock and, likewise, enabled the settlers to save money rather than purchase new African slaves. This practice of interbreeding Irish females with African men went on for several decades and was so widespread that, in 1681, legislation was passed “forbidding the practice of mating Irish slave women to African slave men for the purpose of producing slaves for sale.” In short, it was stopped only because it interfered with the profits of a large slave transport company.

England continued to ship tens of thousands of Irish slaves for more than a century. Records state that, after the 1798 Irish Rebellion, thousands of Irish slaves were sold to both America and Australia. There were horrible abuses of both African and Irish captives. One British ship even dumped 1,302 slaves into the Atlantic Ocean so that the crew would have plenty of food to eat.

There is little question that the Irish experienced the horrors of slavery as much (if not more in the 17th Century) as the Africans did. There is, also, very little question that those brown, tanned faces you witness in your travels to the West Indies are very likely a combination of African and Irish ancestry. In 1839, Britain finally decided on it’s own to end it’s participation in Satan’s highway to hell and stopped transporting slaves. While their decision did not stop pirates from doing what they desired, the new law slowly concluded THIS chapter of nightmarish Irish misery.

But, if anyone, black or white, believes that slavery was only an African experience, then they’ve got it completely wrong.

Irish slavery is a subject worth remembering, not erasing from our memories.

But, where are our public (and PRIVATE) schools???? Where are the history books? Why is it so seldom discussed?

Do the memories of hundreds of thousands of Irish victims merit more than a mention from an unknown writer?

Or is their story to be one that their English pirates intended: To (unlike the African book) have the Irish story utterly and completely disappear as if it never happened.

None of the Irish victims ever made it back to their homeland to describe their ordeal. These are the lost slaves; the ones that time and biased history books conveniently forgot.
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Old Nov 29th, 2013, 06:22 PM   #2
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Re: Forgotten Slaves

From Wistorical:

RIHANNA & THE BARBADOS REDLEGS

Kinsale, Co. Cork, Ireland
St. Michael’s Parish, Barbados

Rihanna is Irish. Or sort of. She is the granddaughter of a Barbadian Redleg. And anyone who knows Barbados knows that the Redlegs are all Irish.

I’ve had my suspicions about the Irish connection to the Caribbean ever since I heard Bob Marley’s wife Rita speak as follows: ‘Sometime Bob say to me he wanna move to London and I say, whaddaya wanna move there for, like?’ Rita may have been born and bred in Jamaica, but her accent was straight out of County Cork.

There are indeed strong Irish roots to the Caribbean accent. It all began in 1636 when an English ship with 61 Irish prisoners left the port of Kinsale on the south coast of Cork and set sail across the Atlantic. They were all destined to become indentured servants or slaves on the tobacco, cotton and primarily sugar plantations of Barbados.

Quarter of a century later, Oliver Cromwell’s Puritan Republicans were in control of England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales. For anyone who opposed the regime, transportation to the Caribbean colonies became a very real prospect. Between 1652 and 1657, an estimated 50,000 men and women were rounded up by soldiers, shipped to Bristol, sold as slaves and branded with the name of the slave ship they would voyage on.

Most of the 50,000 were Irish, arrested in the wake of Cromwell’s conquest of the country. They were initially imprisoned in holding pens along the south coast of Ireland, as well as Belfast, before being dispatched east to the sugar cane plantations of Barbados.

While working in the cane fields, the new-comers gained their ‘red-leg’ nick-name on account of the hot Caribbean sun which burned their fair Irish legs.

However, white slavery went out of vogue during the late 17th century with most plantation bosses reasoning that it made no sense to pay "idle" Redlegs when "industrious" African slaves would work for free. No longer required on the plantations, the Redlegs veered into a downward spiral that has spun on from generation to generation.

Luckily the 21st century Redlegs have some positive role models to look to. Sir Kyffin Simpson, believed to be the richest man in Barbados, is of Redleg stock.

And so too is Robyn Rihanna Fenty, aka Rihanna, whose father Ronald is the son of a Barbadian Redleg.

But while she may be of Redleg stock, it is Rihanna’s good luck that her legs are not remotely red. In 2007, her shapely pins earned her a top gong from Gillette when she won their "Celebrity Legs of a Goddess" award. In May 2012, those very same not-remotely-red legs helped her poll third in FHM magazine’s 100 Sexiest Women in the World. In 2012, Forbes named her as the fourth most powerful celebrity of 2012, while TIME simultaneously named her one of the 100 Most Influential People in the World.

She has also racked up 12 number one singles in six years, more digital sales than anyone in history and well in excess of three billion YouTube hits.
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Old Nov 29th, 2013, 06:29 PM   #3
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Re: Forgotten Slaves

I found the Wistorical version of the review in the first post a while ago and wanted to post it but I had forgotten about it until I stumbled across this version today.

We don't really study this at all in Ireland, which is sad because not everything the British forces/authorities did happened on Irish soil. It's one thing for mainstream history to forget about these people but it's another for Irish historians to do the same.

Anyway, it's an interesting read and to me the most interesting thing was that it was the Irish slaves religion which made them so worthless. I have heard before that Irish slaves were arguably even more rebellious in the New World than they had been before but it sounds like religion was also a big part of the decline in Irish slavery. Perhaps their faith was part of what led them to be so rebellious, I don't know. I read once that with the history/experience of rebellion in Ireland they were very effective at inciting sustained rebellion amongst native and African slaves. I also read that certain names like Obregon which are relatively common in parts of the Caribbean and Central America come from names like O'Brien.
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Old Nov 29th, 2013, 07:01 PM   #4
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Re: Forgotten Slaves

every day i learn a new horror

sad u dont learn about it in school, human and slave in the same sentence just give me the chills
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Old Nov 29th, 2013, 07:07 PM   #5
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Re: Forgotten Slaves

Quote:
Originally Posted by kwilliams View Post
I found the Wistorical version of the review in the first post a while ago and wanted to post it but I had forgotten about it until I stumbled across this version today.

We don't really study this at all in Ireland, which is sad because not everything the British forces/authorities did happened on Irish soil. It's one thing for mainstream history to forget about these people but it's another for Irish historians to do the same.

Anyway, it's an interesting read and to me the most interesting thing was that it was the Irish slaves religion which made them so worthless. I have heard before that Irish slaves were arguably even more rebellious in the New World than they had been before but it sounds like religion was also a big part of the decline in Irish slavery. Perhaps their faith was part of what led them to be so rebellious, I don't know. I read once that with the history/experience of rebellion in Ireland they were very effective at inciting sustained rebellion amongst native and African slaves. I also read that certain names like Obregon which are relatively common in parts of the Caribbean and Central America come from names like O'Brien.
Irish governments don't like to talk about the colonial oppression they're too busy playing bitch to No.10 particularly the Blueshirts but FF are as bad for that shit too.

To mention stuff like this and the famine genocide has you branded as some "crazy Republican" who can't get over the past.

The white man always wants the oppressed class to "get over" the past because it NEVER suits them, although we are as white as can be we clearly had experiences closer to that of indigenous groups and African slaves than of the white European elite for hundreds of years.

So don't expect this entering history books, the right wingers would see it as "republican indoctrination".
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Old Nov 29th, 2013, 07:09 PM   #6
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Re: Forgotten Slaves

horrifying! i never knew.
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Old Nov 29th, 2013, 07:11 PM   #7
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Re: Forgotten Slaves

Well, history is full of horrors. Yeah, it's sad we don't learn about it but I suppose when we study American history we kind of do so from an American perspective. We do study so much Irish history and so much American history and quite a good deal about the voyages of discovery but I suppose there's just so much to cover! It at least deserves a mention though.

I think the general public are more aware of this single event than the century-long history mentioned above.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sack_of_Baltimore

I also don't think we learn nearly enough about Native Americans and the adversity they faced in North, Central and South America.

Quote:
Originally Posted by KournikovaFan91 View Post
Irish governments don't like to talk about the colonial oppression they're too busy playing bitch to No.10 particularly the Blueshirts but FF are as bad for that shit too.

To mention stuff like this and the famine genocide has you branded as some "crazy Republican" who can't get over the past.

The white man always wants the oppressed class to "get over" the past because it NEVER suits them, although we are as white as can be we clearly had experiences closer to that of indigenous groups and African slaves than of the white European elite for hundreds of years.

So don't expect this entering history books, the right wingers would see it as "republican indoctrination".
Yeah, but we learn about the other atrocities Cromwell committed and although not enough is mentioned about the staggering death toll of the famine being avoidable (had there been a will to avoid it) at least we do learn about it and we get some idea that there was no desire to save people from starvation (we should learn more of the details of that though) This chapter of our history is completely omitted in my opinion.

I also think that these days that there's a disconnect when it comes to white Christians oppressing white Christians. Look at the Finns as well. Nobody really learns about how they have suffered.

I watched a documentary on TG4 a while ago which was specifically about the female Irish slaves brought to Australia. By all accounts they were very spirited and rebellious as well. Apparently, the lady of the house would fear for her life when new slaves were shipped in!
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Old Nov 29th, 2013, 07:22 PM   #8
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Re: Forgotten Slaves

Loads of stuff is edited from history curriculums to make room for 20th century shite, like my US history book had pop culture stuff like Marilyn Monroe in it History by E! News it seems. And the WWII stuff is just like watching a Nat Geo documentary.

I did my thesis on Indigenous politics in Peru and Bolivia and did a Maori Studies class in NZ, indigenous cultures and their treatment by colonialism and later the white governments that ruled them is interesting. South America has made many advances with the Pink Tide that swept across the continent.
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Old Nov 29th, 2013, 07:26 PM   #9
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Re: Forgotten Slaves

I think this atrocity isn't remembered as much in the US because the Irish eventually became absorbed into whiteness, and in turn many of them became the biggest racists in America, because being anti-black/anti-Indian secured their tenuous grasp onto whiteness. Many Irish were as invested as keeping this knowledge subjugated as are the Whites who owned them, because "white" people are not supposed to be slaves.
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Old Nov 29th, 2013, 07:33 PM   #10
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Re: Forgotten Slaves

Its not remembered here let alone the US.
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Old Nov 29th, 2013, 07:39 PM   #11
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Re: Forgotten Slaves

Quote:
Originally Posted by KournikovaFan91 View Post
Loads of stuff is edited from history curriculums to make room for 20th century shite, like my US history book had pop culture stuff like Marilyn Monroe in it History by E! News it seems. And the WWII stuff is just like watching a Nat Geo documentary.

I did my thesis on Indigenous politics in Peru and Bolivia and did a Maori Studies class in NZ, indigenous cultures and their treatment by colonialism and later the white governments that ruled them is interesting. South America has made many advances with the Pink Tide that swept across the continent.
What!? Pop culture!? Our book/curriculum was not that bad but I dropped history after junior cert because I got a C. I was soooooooooooo pissed off! I was absolutely insulted. I was like, if I wrote an entire essay solely on the Sudetenland I clearly knew my sh*t!

Quote:
Originally Posted by le bon vivant View Post
I think this atrocity isn't remembered as much in the US because the Irish eventually became absorbed into whiteness, and in turn many of them became the biggest racists in America, because being anti-black/anti-Indian secured their tenuous grasp onto whiteness. Many Irish were as invested as keeping this knowledge subjugated as are the Whites who owned them, because "white" people are not supposed to be slaves.
That 'journey' took a very long time though, especially as slavery had stopped by the 1800s and immigration only really started to surge around the time of the famine. I wonder how aware these immigrants were of the slave trade. They weren't descended from these slaves and although it's hard to say but I wonder what level of contact would have existed between FOBs and the descendents of the original slaves, most of whom would possibly still would have resided in more rural areas - not the urban areas the Irish were moving too. Also, even if those FOBs were aware of the (possibly in some cases now former) Irish slaves, they were still facing generations of discrimination and also had centuries of discrimination behind them so it surely would have been a long, long time before they had any significant desire to suppress that information.

Perhaps Anglo-Irish people would have sought to suppress this history as they may have been seen as just simply 'Irish' by the Americans. I'm not really sure how much the status of Anglo-Irish people differed from Irish people in America because the Anglo-Irish who were moving to America had often lost their fortunes or lands.

Also, as KournikovaFan said it's quite a large part of our history that has been completely forgotten. It doesn't make sense that it has never been studied here and that most people are not aware of it when we are aware of so many other parts of the occupation of Ireland, especially events from the 1600 and 1700s onwards.

I doubt that there's much awareness about it anywhere but I wonder if it's somewhat more known in the Caribbean or Australia? I think one of the above articles mentions that during much of the 1700s 70% of the population of Montserrat were Irish slaves and I think Montserrat is the only other place in the world (aside from Ireland) where St. Patrick's Day is a national holiday.
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Old Nov 29th, 2013, 08:04 PM   #12
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Re: Forgotten Slaves

Quote:
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What!? Pop culture!? Our book/curriculum was not that bad but I dropped history after junior cert because I got a C. I was soooooooooooo pissed off! I was absolutely insulted. I was like, if I wrote an entire essay solely on the Sudetenland I clearly know my sh*t!



That 'journey' took a very long time though, especially as slavery had stopped by the 1800s and immigration only really started to surge around the time of the famine. I wonder how aware these immigrants were of the slave trade. They weren't descended from these slaves and although it's hard to say but I wonder what level of contact would have existed between FOBs and the descendents of the original slaves, most of whom would possibly still would have resided in more rural areas - not the urban areas the Irish were moving too. Also, even if those FOBs were aware of the (possibly in some cases now former) Irish slaves, they were still facing generations of discrimination and also had centuries of discrimination behind them so it surely would have been a long, long time before they had any significant desire to suppress that information.

Perhaps Anglo-Irish people would have sought to suppress this history as they may have been seen as just simply 'Irish' by the Americans. I'm not really sure how much the status of Anglo-Irish people differed from Irish people in America because the Anglo-Irish who were moving to America had often lost their fortunes or lands.

Also, as KournikovaFan said it's quite a large part of our history that has been completely forgotten. It doesn't make sense that it has never been studied here and that most people are not aware of it when we are aware of so many other parts of the occupation of Ireland, especially events from the 1600 and 1700s onwards.

I doubt that there's much awareness about it anywhere but I wonder if it's somewhat more known in the Caribbean or Australia? I think one of the above articles mentions that during much of the 1700s 70% of the population of Montserrat were Irish slaves and I think Montserrat is the only other place in the world (aside from Ireland) where St. Patrick's Day is a national holiday.
Well, as with most things in the US, it's a story of race. The descendants of those Irish slaves make up a large portion of Appalachian Whites, who today are one of the most impoverished populations in the country, struggling mightily with drug addiction. Many of them also absconded to the region and intermarried with blacks, and they became the multi-racial Melungeon people of rural Appalachia. But the desire for the social status of "white" drives much of this suppressed history.
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Old Nov 29th, 2013, 08:11 PM   #13
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Re: Forgotten Slaves

The US book for the LC has some pop culture stuff I think the 20th Century Irish one might also actually.

I did it for LC, got a B1 but most of that was helped by the special project probably, did mine on the Bay of Pigs Invasion. Yeah the way they mark history is pretty tough compared to other subjects, and all I recall from that class was the amount of time we spent studing the ins and outs of Land Reform bills in the 19th Century, took forever and was all very detailed.
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Old Nov 29th, 2013, 08:15 PM   #14
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Re: Forgotten Slaves

Quote:
Originally Posted by le bon vivant View Post
Well, as with most things in the US, it's a story of race. The descendants of those Irish slaves make up a large portion of Appalachian Whites, who today are one of the most impoverished populations in the country, struggling might with drug addiction. Many of them also absconded to the region and intermarried with blacks, and they became the multi-racial Melungeon people of rural Appalachia. But the desire for the social status of "white" drives much of this suppressed history.
I'm not 100% sure about this but I believe I have read more than once that those people in the Appalachians are largely Scots-Irish, or at least a majority of them are. Also, again, I don't really know what kind of status of the Anglo-Irish or Scots-Irish had in the US and how that status changed over time but as they were almost always oppressors here it's hard to imagine them accepting being classified as 'Irish' in the States even though in time some of them would consider themselves Irish of a sort and a few would even begin to fight for Irish rights. That's one thing I've always been curious about. So many Americans claim Irish ancestry but I wonder if all of them know the difference between the Anglo or Scots-Irish and the Irish because the differences in those days were huge.

Quote:
Originally Posted by KournikovaFan91 View Post
The US book for the LC has some pop culture stuff I think the 20th Century Irish one might also actually.

I did it for LC, got a B1 but most of that was helped by the special project probably, did mine on the Bay of Pigs Invasion. Yeah the way they mark history is pretty tough compared to other subjects, and all I recall from that class was the amount of time we spent studing the ins and outs of Land Reform bills in the 19th Century, took forever and was all very detailed.
What? Showbands?

I think I got a B1 in almost every history test I ever took in secondary school except for the JC!! I actually would've loved to have studied it for LC but didn't. It may have been too in-depth for me at that stage though. I'm not sure if I could've coped with dissecting the Land Reform Bills or anything like that!

I'm supposed to be studying Irish right now actually but I'm self-sabotaging again. Tá cúpla focal agat. An bhfuil ceart agam? Bhí mé ag chur cúpla téacsanna chuig mo chara níos luaithe (trí Gaeilge) agus tar éis sin, d'oscail mé an mír ar beo.ie ach nílim in ann aon staidéar a dhéanamh ach tá orm é a dhéanamh! Táim scriosta.
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Old Nov 29th, 2013, 08:28 PM   #15
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Re: Forgotten Slaves

Posted: May 9th, 2013
Death on the Railroad
Program Transcript

Secrets of The Dead: Death on the Railroad

In the rural Pennsylvania countryside of 1832, Irish immigrants worked to build one of America’s earliest railroads.

The men were constructing mile 59 of what would become the Philadelphia-to-Pittsburg mainline, at a site that became known as Duffy’s Cut.

They left Ireland, a land ravaged by famine, disease and violence, in hopes of a new life. But, within weeks they would all be dead, their bodies buried in an unmarked grave.

What happened to these men has remained a mystery for more than 180 years. Their disappearance covered up by powerful forces.

Now, a chance discovery by twin brothers Bill and Frank Watson has exposed this forgotten secret.

BILL WATSON
Our guys unfortunately walked out into a maelstrom and they became cannon fodder of the industrial revolution.

It’s a story that reveals a dark chapter in American history.

FRANK WATSON
Remembering this story is important because its a matter of justice its a matter of doing what is right with one heritage and ones history. And for us in the US its important to tell this story, its important to remember those who have given up their lives to help build up this country.

The Watsons teamed up with other historians and scientists to uncover to uncover the truth behind the disappearance of these missing Irish railroad workers.

ACTUALITY 2010 DIG,
FRANK – Is that a bullet hole. Oh my goodness.

SAM – it looks like Trauma

Using a combination of modern forensic science and old fashioned detective work they searched for the true story behind Death on the Railroad.

TITLE
DEATH ON THE RAILROAD

In 1832, tens of thousands of young Irish men and women fled Ireland the United States.

They went in search of the American dream. Fifty-seven Irish laborers were among them, departing from the port of Derry in northwest Ireland for an 8 week journey across the Atlantic to Philadelphia.

Working on a railroad was the first step in their quest for a better life. But a silent killer stalked their tracks—cholera.

Just six weeks after their arrival, all 57men were dead and their untimely deaths became the stuff of ghost stories and legends.

The discovery of a mysterious file detailed how the Irish immigrants were hired to work on of one of America’s earliest railroads.

It also revealed that when the men died, the railroad went to great lengths to keep the men’s deaths secret. Just what happened to these men was lost to history.

More: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/secrets/tran...transcript/983
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