PDA

View Full Version : European-Americans have developed a huge batch of potentially harmful genetic...


RVD
Nov 29th, 2012, 07:21 AM
... mutations!!
A recent study shows.


I found this article interesting on many levels.
And it certainly confirmed a few theories I've had for decades.
Hoping that it does the same for others here as well.

Study shows surge of bad disease genes in Europeans

By Maggie Fox, NBC News
A scan of all the mutations in the human gene map shows something surprising – people of European descent are evolving fast, and not for the better.

The study finds that in the past 5,000 years, European-Americans have developed a huge batch of potentially harmful genetic mutations – many more than African-Americans.

The study, published in the journal Nature, may help explain why so many people develop diseases even though they don’t have common genetic mutations. It can also help explain why different people have so many different reactions to the same drug, said Joshua Akey of the University of Washington in Seattle who led the study.

It likely has to do with population explosion, Akey said. European populations expanded after the Ice Age ended and prosperous agricultural societies emerged. “The number of mutations that exist is directly attributable to the population growth that happened in the last 5,000 years,” Akey told NBC News.

“The things that allowed us to go from millions to billions of has also been the same process that has been pumping in all these new mutations.”

Akey and colleagues at genetics institutions across the country examined the gene sequences of more than 6,500 people – more than 4,200 European-Americans and 2,200 African-Americans. They were looking for small changes in the genetic code called single nucleotide variants – one-letter differences in the genetic code of A,C, T and G.

They found “an enormous excess of rare variants” in the European-Americans. And 73 percent of these mutations only appeared in the human genome in the past 5,000 to 10,000 years. Most were mutations that are known to weaken proteins, Akey said, and most of these harmful mutations were also in the people of European descent.

Now researchers are working to see which of these mutations might be associated with diseases. But many are in known disease-causing genes, such as the LAMC1 gene associated with premature ovarian failure, LRP1, which is linked with both Alzheimer’s disease and obesity and the CPE gene linked to hardening of the arteries.

Most are rare mutations – meaning they only affect a few people. “Some genes might be more disease-causing than other genes,” Akey said.

It may explain why it’s been so hard to find clear genetic links to many diseases. “We have been looking for disease risk where it isn’t,’ he said. “The last five to 10 years have been dominated by looking for common genetic variations that dominate common diseases. There is a lot of disease risk that is unexplained. Maybe there are classes of mutations that haven’t been looked at.”

The findings could explain why some people can smoke for a lifetime and never get lung cancer or heart disease, while someone else might suffer a heart attack despite having healthy blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

It definitely shows evolution in action, Akey said. “It’s just the process of evolution playing out in real time,” he said. “The dramatic population expansions that occurred over the past couple thousand years had a profound consequence on our genetic variability.”

Genetic mutations usually occur by accident – they are just mistakes that get made when DNA gets copied. They become important to evolution when they affect a person’s ability to survive and have children. The expansion of civilization, and the ability of societies to care for people who are less fit, was probably a factor in allowing these mutations to spring up, Akey said. “I think that is undoubtedly true,” he said.

Some of the genes identified in the scan also affect peoples’ response to drugs. That could explain why some people are helped, for example, by a cholesterol-lowering drug while others may not be. There wouldn’t have been much “selective pressure” on these genes before the modern drug era, but that doesn’t mean the genes were not influenced by something else. “It turns out that genes involved in adverse drug responses also have different biological roles,” Akey said – for instance, detoxifying certain foods.

There may even be more evolution in the future, Akey predicted. One example – phenylketonuria or PKU. It’s caused by a mutation in a gene that breaks down an amino acid called phenylalanine. People with PKU mutations must eat a strict, low-protein diet or they can develop seizures and mental retardation.

Now newborns are routinely tested for PKU so they can start the diet immediately and avoid any brain damage. Akey said because these kids can now grow up and lead normal lives, they will likely start having children and the gene may become more common in the population.
http://vitals.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/11/28/15518402-study-shows-surge-of-bad-disease-genes-in-europeans?lite&ocid=msnhp&pos=4

moby
Nov 29th, 2012, 02:42 PM
What theories did it confirm for you?

RVD
Nov 29th, 2012, 04:55 PM
What theories did it confirm for you?A few that immediately come to mind:

* A recent drug "cocktail" for AIDS that worked exceptionally well on two minority groups (African descendents and Asians) but not on Caucasians.

* The disproportionate number of illnesses that afflict many White-Americans, but not other minorities.

* Why doctors are so pushy (often demanding) for African-American (kids & adults) to take recent immunization shots, and get extremely upset when they are declined.

* Why so much medical studies has been conducted on African-Americans, to the point of severely breaking civil rights laws. I'm thinking for data collection, since Black-Americans avoid many shots and such.

And of course, the article hit on a small number as well.

miffedmax
Nov 29th, 2012, 05:36 PM
Well, point 3 has a lot to do with herd immunity, and most of those diseases affect all ethnic groups.

The question I would wonder about, though, is most mutations only survive if they confer a positive benefit as well. I wonder what some of those might be?

I also wonder if we'll see some changes in other ethnic groups over time. For several generations now, African-Americans, Hispanics and I'm pretty sure Asians have tended to marry younger than whites, a trend that is changing. I know some of the genetic issues are older than that and trace back to the boom in the European population, but some articles on this research point out that whites have been marrying and reproducing at older ages on average, and give recent discoveries about older men's sperm this has probably had some impact. We'll see.

The real interesting thing to me is that it continues to highlight the complex interplay of how our genes work. I remember it wasn't that long ago when some scientists were talking about finding, say, the "high blood pressure gene" and coming up with a therapy for it. It's pretty clear it's going to be more complex than that. In the long run, we'll probably all benefit from this research. Or our grandkids or great-grandkids will.

*JR*
Nov 29th, 2012, 09:11 PM
I guess the OP should share this with the writers who used to peddle the :bs: that HIV was released into the human population because blacks were (supposedly) more likely to develop AIDS and die; with the Tuskegee experiments in leaving syphilis untreated as the only "evidence" of this (allegedly) attempted genocide.

And with the mainstream medical authorities, who routinely talk about higher rates of prostate cancer and hypertension among blacks (who also have a near-monopoly on sickle cell anemia). :oh: Err wait, that wouldn't fit the typical RVD "racialist" narrative.

Helen Lawson
Nov 29th, 2012, 11:44 PM
TF has its own Black Jimmie the Greek!

RVD
Nov 30th, 2012, 12:09 AM
Well, point 3 has a lot to do with herd immunity, and most of those diseases affect all ethnic groups.I used to wonder (and still do) if the CDC ever considerd that there are various diseases not prevalent among certain ethnic groups. This stems from the fact that intense immunological study often does not include minorities.
On the one hand, I can certainly understand this approach in that it is best to target the majority ethnic group first. However, research often stops (or significantly slows) upon discovery of medicines and effective immunization serums that offer a significant degree of protection for the majority population.
There have been doctors that I've spoken to who've said that they've had the same concerns. But most won't admit this.
The question I would wonder about, though, is most mutations only survive if they confer a positive benefit as well. I wonder what some of those might be?This is an interesting point.
I think that in the case of psychological illnesses, a population can still reproduce depending on psychological severity. So psychotic illnesses may be an exception.
There may be other mutations that are also not beneficial that defy this line of logic as well, but no other illnesses immediately come to mind.

I also wonder if we'll see some changes in other ethnic groups over time. For several generations now, African-Americans, Hispanics and I'm pretty sure Asians have tended to marry younger than whites, a trend that is changing. I know some of the genetic issues are older than that and trace back to the boom in the European population, but some articles on this research point out that whites have been marrying and reproducing at older ages on average, and give recent discoveries about older men's sperm this has probably had some impact. We'll see.You may well have a point here. And the answer is likely 'yes'. One would expect a certain degree of mutations among ethnic groups. However, possibly not as many changes as various ethnic minorities groups appear to exhibit resistance to illnesses that typically afflict Caucasians.
However, unfortunately, since these studies primarily target Caucasians, we may never know.

The real interesting thing to me is that it continues to highlight the complex interplay of how our genes work. I remember it wasn't that long ago when some scientists were talking about finding, say, the "high blood pressure gene" and coming up with a therapy for it. It's pretty clear it's going to be more complex than that. In the long run, we'll probably all benefit from this research. Or our grandkids or great-grandkids will.So true.
I've loved the fascinating world of Human Biology, including genetics, since high school.
Genetic coding always seemed like a beautiful puzzle. Weird, I know.
I was on the verge of securing a Berkeley scholarship in 1981 through referral of my Biology teacher.
Unfortunately, Berkeley stated that they had filled their quota of Black applicants. :lol: :shrug:
Interestingly, my daughter has expressed a strong desire to study Neurovirology, so I am jazzed as hell.

RVD
Nov 30th, 2012, 12:11 AM
TF has its own Black Jimmie the Greek!Speaking of psychological mutations...

JN
Nov 30th, 2012, 05:22 AM
TF has its own Black Jimmie the Greek!

And in you, its own transsexual Wilford Brimley.

RVD
Nov 30th, 2012, 06:44 AM
And in you, its own transsexual Wilford Brimley.:lol:

moby
Nov 30th, 2012, 07:46 AM
Aren't there a certain subgroup of white Europeans (Nordic, I believe) who are immune to HIV? +1 for positive mutation. I think they carry a different version of the cell receptor protein that HIV latches onto.

miffedmax
Nov 30th, 2012, 11:18 AM
I read a couple of articles on this that said that yes, some of these mutations were probably positive, too, like the one you bring up, moby. It's also worth reemphasizing that most of these affect a very small percent of the population, as reflected in the relatively good health overall of most Europeans and persons of European descent.

RVD
Dec 1st, 2012, 02:03 AM
Aren't there a certain subgroup of white Europeans (Nordic, I believe) who are immune to HIV? +1 for positive mutation. I think they carry a different version of the cell receptor protein that HIV latches onto.Can you locate a paper on this? That sounds very interesting.I read a couple of articles on this that said that yes, some of these mutations were probably positive, too, like the one you bring up, moby. It's also worth reemphasizing that most of these affect a very small percent of the population, as reflected in the relatively good health overall of most Europeans and persons of European descent.I believe that you are correct, as it would stand to reason that all human (genetic) mutations would not be negative.
This would also be interesting research as well.

The article likely focused on negative mutations because those are the ones we'd like to see eliminated.
That's entirely an assumption though.

In thinking further on this, certain genetic mutations initially deemed negative, may even be beneficial.
For example, the sickle-cell gene, which is resistant to Malaria, is reportedly more prevalent, or common, among the African populations/nations. This genetic mutation only becomes problematic if an excess of sickle shaped red blood cells exists.
So relatively speaking, not all negative mutations are completely undesired.

Stamp Paid
Dec 1st, 2012, 07:23 AM
I read a couple of articles on this that said that yes, some of these mutations were probably positive, too, like the one you bring up, moby. It's also worth reemphasizing that most of these affect a very small percent of the population, as reflected in the relatively good health overall of most Europeans and persons of European descent.Which has much more to do with their socioeconomic position in the US than anything genetic...

rrfnpump
Dec 1st, 2012, 02:06 PM
Aren't there a certain subgroup of white Europeans (Nordic, I believe) who are immune to HIV? +1 for positive mutation. I think they carry a different version of the cell receptor protein that HIV latches onto.

HIV enters the cells via CCR5 receptor, amongst others. Some Europeans carry a deletion mutant of this receptor which makes them resistant against HIV as the virus cannot enter the T cells. I myself am heterozygous for this mutation meaning I am less likely to get HIV but am not completelz resistant (I was once researching on HIV and thus, tested myself on this mutation. :p). However, people with that HIV resistancy can still carry the virus and infect others.

About the topic: Human lifestyle allowed mutations to accumulate. It is not surprising and it does not mean that all mutations are "bad". After all, blue eyes are also the result of a mutation.

Expat
Dec 1st, 2012, 02:56 PM
How much of it is due to the fact that whites are more likely to survive with poorer genes due to being rich and spending more to cure themselves? Someone with poor genes in poor parts of Asia or Africa isn't going to survive into his adulthood to propagate his poor genes whereas that would be very likely in whites.

miffedmax
Dec 1st, 2012, 03:07 PM
Which has much more to do with their socioeconomic position in the US than anything genetic...

Yes, that's part of it. But some of those things lead to conditions that cause significantly shortened lifespans even with modern medicine, and if they were widespread, dominant traits, it would have a wider impact. This information makes sense, as we have known that there are some health issues that affect whites more frequently than blacks or Asians, and even more specifically some that affect people from southwestern Europe or Scandinavia. This study starts to get at the "why" of that. On the other hand, most of these diseases are still extremely rare. The good news is, again, that with improved understanding of what causes them comes better chances of curing them.

miffedmax
Dec 1st, 2012, 03:19 PM
How much of it is due to the fact that whites are more likely to survive with poorer genes due to being rich and spending more to cure themselves? Someone with poor genes in poor parts of Asia or Africa isn't going to survive into his adulthood to propagate his poor genes whereas that would be very likely in whites.

Not really. The study confirms and starts to explain why whites have higher rates of a wider range of diseases like cystic fibrosis, spinal muscular atrophy, fragile X syndrome, and a host of kidney and liver problems as well as the ones mentioned in the article.

On the other hand, with the exception of CF (which can effect as many as 1 in 28 babies, but can be prevented with testing), most of these diseases are pretty rare and aren't going to have much of an impact on a population group as a whole. Of course, they can be devestating for the individuals and their families, which is why it's good to learn more about the forces driving these issues. But that's the difference between "herd health" and individual health. As "herds" humans tend to have pretty similar health outlooks: we all grow at similar rates, we are all vulnerable to similar toxins and diseases, we all seem to have a similar built-in maximum expiration date. But within our herds, there are many differences as to what goes right and what goes wrong with individuals.

I think there are a lot of significant genetic issues that affect black and Asian population groups, but they tend to be more universal across those ethnic groups, and, as RVD said, oftentimes they have not been adequately addressed from a public healthcare standpoint due to racism and minority status. Same for white women, who have suffered in some areas of medicine because of the assumption that the theraputic norm was a white male of European descent.

RVD
Dec 2nd, 2012, 02:45 AM
HIV enters the cells via CCR5 receptor, amongst others. Some Europeans carry a deletion mutant of this receptor which makes them resistant against HIV as the virus cannot enter the T cells. I myself am heterozygous for this mutation meaning I am less likely to get HIV but am not completelz resistant (I was once researching on HIV and thus, tested myself on this mutation. :p). However, people with that HIV resistancy can still carry the virus and infect others.

About the topic: Human lifestyle allowed mutations to accumulate. It is not surprising and it does not mean that all mutations are "bad". After all, blue eyes are also the result of a mutation.Fascinating information rrfnpump!!

Many years ago, I was researching the Atlanta abductions (Black children reportedly abducted for melanin extraction), and came across a certain article. A portion of the paper centered around abnormally high genetic mutations found among people of Black African decent. The information included both an extreme deficit of melanin (like the one below), and I believe was another that an abundance, and associated protective properties (UV-radiation rich regions such as those areas closest to the Equator), and how effective the 'abundance' of this pigment offered a significant level of protection against certain types of cancer(s).
I hope I'm recalling this correctly.

Anyway, the information below wasn't from the article that I had at one time saved on my old HDD before it crashed. But it's very close. I don't know if you'll find this interesting or not, but for some reason, your post sparked this memory.
Melanin deficiency has been connected for some time with various genetic abnormalities and disease states.
There are approximately nine different types of oculocutaneous albinism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oculocutaneous_albinism), which is mostly an autosomal recessive disorder. Certain ethnicities have higher incidences of different forms. For example, the most common type, called oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (OCA2), is especially frequent among people of black African (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Africa) descent. It is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a congenital (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congenital) reduction or absence of melanin pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes. The estimated frequency of OCA2 among African-Americans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African-American) is 1 in 10,000, which contrasts with a frequency of 1 in 36,000 in white Americans. In some African nations, the frequency of the disorder is even higher, ranging from 1 in 2,000 to 1 in 5,000. Another form of Albinism, the "yellow oculocutaneous albinism", appears to be more prevalent among the Amish (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amish), who are of primarily Swiss (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switzerland) and German (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany) ancestry. People with this IB variant of the disorder commonly have white hair and skin at birth, but rapidly develop normal skin pigmentation in infancy.
So here's yet another mutation that would likely be deemed beneficial.

RVD
Dec 2nd, 2012, 02:58 AM
Did anyone else notice this new and recent image published yesterday?

http://scitechdaily.com/images/dna-double-helix.jpg


It is reportedly the "First Electron Microscope Image of DNA Double Helix".

http://scitechdaily.com/first-electron-microscope-image-of-dna-double-helix/

Doesn't seem to far off that mankind will someday directly influence genes to the point of custumizing future generations. Sort of like we already do with food and produce.

The closer man come to unlocking the coded secrets of our building blocks, the more fearful I am that extremely effective bio-weapons aren't too far off. Or maybe, a "Resident Evil" scenario/program is right around the corner. :scared:

tennisbum79
Dec 15th, 2012, 09:01 PM
I guess the OP should share this with the writers who used to peddle the :bs: that HIV was released into the human population because blacks were (supposedly) more likely to develop AIDS and die; with the Tuskegee experiments in leaving syphilis untreated as the only "evidence" of this (allegedly) attempted genocide.

And with the mainstream medical authorities, who routinely talk about higher rates of prostate cancer and hypertension among blacks (who also have a near-monopoly on sickle cell anemia). :oh: Err wait, that wouldn't fit the typical RVD "racialist" narrative.

JR,you tried to kill the thread by ascribing ulterior motives to him.
As it turns out, thanks to max and other posters, the thread turned to be very illuminating and educational.

I hope posters continue to contribute and share their knowledge and experience
It was fascinating to read that some northern Europeans were resistant to developing full blown AIDS, even though they carry the virus and can infect others

RVD
Dec 15th, 2012, 11:00 PM
JR,you tried to kill by ascribing ulterior motives to him.
As it turns out, thanks to max and other posters, the thread turned to be very illuminating and educational.

I hope continue to contribute and share their knowledge and experience
It was fascinating to read that some northern Europeans were resistant to developing full blown AIDS, even though they carry the virus and can infect othersThank you tennisbum.

I have that poster on IGNORE so did not see the post.
Not that I would have replied to that worthless stalker to begin with.
However, thanks to posters like yourself, miffedmax, Expat, LBV, moby, rrfnpump, etc..., there were many great questions and equally interesting facts revealed.
I enjoy reading anything having to do with Biology, so hopefully many others will post equally interesting ...related... topics and ignore posters like *JR* who continuously attempt to bully others and derail great discussions.

*JR*
Dec 16th, 2012, 02:44 AM
JR,you tried to kill by ascribing ulterior motives to him....
"Riddle me this, Batman". Had Adam Lanza's mother been teaching little kids in a predominantly black elementary school, and her psycho son thus moved down 20 first-graders there instead, do you think for a minute that RVD would not have immediately labeled the motive as racism? :scratch: If so, "there's this bridge in Brooklyn I'd like to sell you".

useme
Dec 17th, 2012, 06:44 AM
If you want to get all metaphysical here are some videos about cosmic rays changing dna:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=snpyCKYvvg8
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ajZ6KsLoHXk

Patrick345
Dec 17th, 2012, 08:22 AM
TF has its own Black Jimmie the Greek!

What a shocker to see RVD&JN start and take the lead roles in another racially laden topic. :lol:

Helen Lawson
Dec 17th, 2012, 08:27 AM
What a shocker to see RVD&JN start and take the lead roles in another racially laden topic. :lol:

I'm waiting for it to lead to a white on black crime or exploitation story. :lol:

tennisbum79
Dec 17th, 2012, 08:11 PM
What a shocker to see RVD&JN start and take the lead roles in another racially laden topic. :lol:
Thank God other posters went beyond prejudice like yours and added valuable contribution to the thread.

dybbuk
Dec 17th, 2012, 08:21 PM
I'm waiting for it to lead to a white on black crime or exploitation story. :lol:

Do you ever get tired of trying to start shit in threads? And do you ever realize how tiresome it gets for other posters to see your baiting posts all over NT? You need to take your problems with these posters somewhere we don't have to constantly see them.

Helen Lawson
Dec 17th, 2012, 09:19 PM
Do you ever get tired of trying to start shit in threads? And do you ever realize how tiresome it gets for other posters to see your baiting posts all over NT? You need to take your problems with these posters somewhere we don't have to constantly see them.

I have to wade through your boring, uninspired waste of space posts in NT, and I never complained. I suggest you place me on ignore if you don't like it.

dybbuk
Dec 17th, 2012, 09:58 PM
I have to wade through your boring, uninspired waste of space posts in NT, and I never complained. I suggest you place me on ignore if you don't like it.

Ok, so you actually possess zero self-awareness to see how pathetic your fight with them is becoming? Ok. But I will clue you in then, since you don't have any idea it seems, it's actually really really pathetic to be in such a long-running, obsessive bitch-fight with anonymous people on the internet. And it's unbelievably tiresome for other people to have to see it in every other thread that has literally nothing to do with it.

And lol at your generic run-of-the-mill put-down that was supposed to hurt me. It just reeks of you having no idea what to say so you just put some mean words together and hoped they would stick.

And by the way, it's tiresome from both sides, before you accuse me of bias. I don't understand how the mods have let it go on this long.

Helen Lawson
Dec 17th, 2012, 11:18 PM
Ok, so you actually possess zero self-awareness to see how pathetic your fight with them is becoming? Ok. But I will clue you in then, since you don't have any idea it seems, it's actually really really pathetic to be in such a long-running, obsessive bitch-fight with anonymous people on the internet. And it's unbelievably tiresome for other people to have to see it in every other thread that has literally nothing to do with it.

And lol at your generic run-of-the-mill put-down that was supposed to hurt me. It just reeks of you having no idea what to say so you just put some mean words together and hoped they would stick.

And by the way, it's tiresome from both sides, before you accuse me of bias. I don't understand how the mods have let it go on this long.

One word: ignore

plantman
Dec 18th, 2012, 05:35 AM
TF has its own Black Jimmie the Greek!

:tape:

plantman
Dec 18th, 2012, 05:45 AM
Do you ever get tired of trying to start shit in threads? And do you ever realize how tiresome it gets for other posters to see your baiting posts all over NT? You need to take your problems with these posters somewhere we don't have to constantly see them.



http://img507.imageshack.us/img507/3222/thca7vcawo.jpg (http://imageshack.us/photo/my-images/507/thca7vcawo.jpg/)

RVD
Dec 18th, 2012, 05:50 AM
Do you ever get tired of trying to start shit in threads? And do you ever realize how tiresome it gets for other posters to see your baiting posts all over NT? You need to take your problems with these posters somewhere we don't have to constantly see them.Ok, so you actually possess zero self-awareness to see how pathetic your fight with them is becoming? Ok. But I will clue you in then, since you don't have any idea it seems, it's actually really really pathetic to be in such a long-running, obsessive bitch-fight with anonymous people on the internet. And it's unbelievably tiresome for other people to have to see it in every other thread that has literally nothing to do with it.

And lol at your generic run-of-the-mill put-down that was supposed to hurt me. It just reeks of you having no idea what to say so you just put some mean words together and hoped they would stick.

And by the way, it's tiresome from both sides, before you accuse me of bias. I don't understand how the mods have let it go on this long.Evidently, there are a LOT of posters who feel the same as you about this weirdo poster.
Tbh, he doesn't bother me in the slightest.

But like you already stated, I'd imagine that it gets tiring for those who have to read his Bi-polar, compulsive-obsessive posts 30-40 times a day.
And always the same pathetic put-down attempts.

He and others act as if I wrote the article. :lol:

Just the fact that he sees my screen name and follows me like a lost little puppy is sorta perverted too.
It's sooo hard being popular. ;)

RVD
Dec 18th, 2012, 05:55 AM
What a shocker to see RVD&JN start and take the lead roles in another racially laden topic. :lol:I see that plantman's retarded little brother is here.
What mutation do you suffer from? :tape:

Seriously, why do these circle-jerkers come into a perfectly fine thread without contributing anything? :smash:
If you're bothered by the article, write the author ya stupid F**K!